Information hiding and covert communication

Information hiding and covert communication

Tor is an encrypted anonymising network that makes it harder to intercept internet communications, or see where communications are coming from or going to. If you are at high risk and you have the capacity to do so, you can also access the submission system through a secure operating system called Tails. Tails is an operating system launched from a USB stick or a DVD that aim to leaves no traces when the computer is shut down after use and automatically routes your internet traffic through Tor.

Our submission system works hard to preserve your anonymity, but we recommend you also take some of your own precautions. Please review these basic guidelines. If you have a very large submission, or a submission with a complex format, or are a high-risk source, please contact us. In our experience it is always possible to find a custom solution for even the most seemingly difficult situations.

If the computer you are uploading from could subsequently be audited in an investigation, consider using a computer that is not easily tied to you. Technical users can also use Tails to help ensure you do not leave any records of your submission on the computer. If you have any issues talk to WikiLeaks. We are the global experts in source protection — it is a complex field. Even those who mean well often do not have the experience or expertise to advise properly.

This includes other media organisations. If you are a high-risk source, avoid saying anything or doing anything after submitting which might promote suspicion. In particular, you should try to stick to your normal routine and behaviour. If you are a high-risk source and the computer you prepared your submission on, or uploaded it from, could subsequently be audited in an investigation, we recommend that you format and dispose of the computer hard drive and any other storage media you used.

In particular, hard drives retain data after formatting which may be visible to a digital forensics team and flash media USB sticks, memory cards and SSD drives retain data even after a secure erasure.

8 Ways to Deal With Passive-Aggressive Employees

If you used flash media to store sensitive data, it is important to destroy the media. If you do this and are a high-risk source you should make sure there are no traces of the clean-up, since such traces themselves may draw suspicion. If a legal action is brought against you as a result of your submission, there are organisations that may help you. The Courage Foundation is an international organisation dedicated to the protection of journalistic sources.

WikiLeaks publishes documents of political or historical importance that are censored or otherwise suppressed. We specialise in strategic global publishing and large archives. The following is the address of our secure site where you can anonymously upload your documents to WikiLeaks editors.

You can only access this submissions system through Tor. See our Tor tab for more information. We also advise you to read our tips for sources before submitting. If you cannot use Tor, or your submission is very large, or you have specific requirements, WikiLeaks provides several alternative methods.

Contact us to discuss how to proceed. This publication series is about specific projects related to the Vault 7 main publication. The project was maintained between and Protego is not the "usual" malware development project like all previous publications by WikiLeaks in the Vault7 series.October 13, Do you have any employees who seem to be hiding a deep-seated anger?

These 8 strategies can help you understand and manage the passive-aggressive people on your staff. While other employees may choose to keep their distance, as your business's leader, you need to confront this situation head on. By not doing so, passive-aggressive employees can sabotage the culture of your office with their underlying anger. But confronting a passive-aggressive person can be tricky since they are, by nature, non-confrontational, says Zeynep Ivet Bandirmaan organizational psychologist and leadership development coach.

Instead of openly discussing issues that may be bothering them, they may instead make inappropriate remarks or mumble under their breath, which makes it extremely uncomfortable for others to be around.

You must put a stop to this immediately if you don't want them dragging your business down with them. Here are three steps Bandirma suggests you take as quickly as possible. When you do this, you need to be very clear about the passive-aggressive behavior you've observed.

Be sure to carefully document specific incidents so you can bring them up to your employee. If it feels 'off' and the behavior seems odd, then it probably is. Once you've recognized the employee's behavior as passive aggressive, you need to stay calm and collected when dealing with the situation. While this can be difficult, Bandirma says that reacting emotionally will only make the situation worse.

The passive-aggressive employee will shut down and may even harbor deeper, angry feelings toward you. The actions of a passive-aggressive person are complex—their behavioral patterns are often deeply rooted and a way of coping with stress, anxieties and insecurities. Only when they become self-aware or mature in understanding their own thoughts and actions can the person change.

When this happens, behaviors like [passive aggression] are quieted and don't have room to proliferate. To stop passive-aggressive behavior from spreading to the rest of your team, try implementing these five strategies that Bandirma suggests for business leaders:. Be authentic. Be consistent. As your business's leader, it's your job to consistently foster the organizational culture you want through your words and actions. The last thing you want is for your team to begin to make up stories in their heads and to perpetuate the idea that things will always stay the same.

Foster feedback and communication. The most important tool you have to run a successful company is open and effective communication. Make it a habit to implement activities like after action reviews after each project, for example, so your team becomes accustomed to looking at projects, activities and tasks with a critical eye in an effort to make the next round better. And ask everyone to participate. Be compassionate. Managers need to build strong, effective relationships with their employees.

These shouldn't be thought of as friendships but more so as partnerships. When you speak with your employees, make sure to spend equal amounts of time with them, show compassion and don't forget to be human. Check in regularly.Surveillance is the monitoring of behavior, activities, or information for the purpose of information gathering, influencing, managing or directing. This can include observation from a distance by means of electronic equipment, such as closed-circuit television CCTVor interception of electronically transmitted information, such as Internet traffic.

It can also include simple technical methods, such as human intelligence gathering and postal interception. Synonym: Observation example: this room is guarded by twenty-four hour observation.

News & Information

Surveillance is used by governments for intelligence gathering, prevention of crime, the protection of a process, person, group or object, or the investigation of crime. It is also used by criminal organizations to plan and commit crimes, and by businesses to gather intelligence on their competitors, suppliers or customers. Religious organisations charged with detecting heresy and heterodoxy may also carry out surveillance. Surveillance can be used by governments to unjustifiably violate people's privacy and is often criticized by civil liberties activists.

International espionage seems to be common among all types of countries. The vast majority of computer surveillance involves the monitoring of data and traffic on the Internet.

There is far too much data on the Internet for human investigators to manually search through all of it. Therefore, automated Internet surveillance computers sift through the vast amount of intercepted Internet traffic to identify and report to human investigators the traffic that is considered interesting or suspicious.

This process is regulated by targeting certain "trigger" words or phrases, visiting certain types of web sites, or communicating via email or online chat with suspicious individuals or groups.

Computers can be a surveillance target because of the personal data stored on them. Such software could be installed physically or remotely.

Through accessing this information, the government is able to obtain search history, emails, stored information, live chats, file transfers, and more. This program generated huge controversies in regards to surveillance and privacy, especially from U.

The official and unofficial tapping of telephone lines is widespread. About half of these letters requested information on U. Human agents are not required to monitor most calls. Speech-to-text software creates machine-readable text from intercepted audio, which is then processed by automated call-analysis programs, such as those developed by agencies such as the Information Awareness Officeor companies such as Verintand Naruswhich search for certain words or phrases, to decide whether to dedicate a human agent to the call.

Law enforcement and intelligence services in the United Kingdom and the United States possess technology to activate the microphones in cell phones remotely, by accessing phones' diagnostic or maintenance features in order to listen to conversations that take place near the person who holds the phone. The StingRay tracker is an example of one of these tools used to monitor cell phone usage in the United States and the United Kingdom.

Originally developed for counterterrorism purposes by the military, they work by broadcasting powerful signals that cause nearby cell phones to transmit their IMSI numberjust as they would to normal cell phone towers. Once the phone is connected to the device, there is no way for the user to know that they are being tracked. The operator of the stingray is able to extract information such as location, phone calls, and text messages, but it is widely believed that the capabilities of the StingRay extend much further.The best evidence for Extraterrestrial contact, dating back decades, will be presented with direct topsecret witness testimony, documents and UFO footage.

The behind-the-scenes research and high level meetings convened by Dr. Steven Greer will expose the degree of illegal, covert operations at the core of UFO secrecy.

From briefings with Laurance Rockefeller and for the Clintons, to meetings with the CIA Director, top Pentagon Generals and Admirals, to the briefing of President Obama via senior advisor John Podesta, current chairman of the Hillary Clinton Campaign — we will take the viewer behind the veil of secrecy and into the corridors of real power where the UFO secrets reside.

With trillions of dollars of illegally obtained funding, these USAPs have become the greatest threat to world peace and the human future ever faced by humanity. They will be exposed. The project names, underground bases, corporations and agencies involved will be named. Greer will take the viewer on a journey astonishing, disturbing and inspiring.

The evidence for interstellar civilizations will be presented, along with evidence of an illegal cartel hiding from the public and Presidents alike the truth that we are not alone and that we now know how they get here. An expose of these technological developments -begun just after WWII — will explain the reason behind the secrecy: Oil, the PetroDollar, coal, public utilities, surface roads, jets and all current means of energy generation and transportation will be rendered obsolete once the truth is known.

It is time. Unacknowledged will vividly paint a picture of the profound existential crisis and choice now facing humanity and the Earth: Continue with the status quo and face a near-extinction event, or embrace a new world free of poverty, pollution and an interstellar future.

information hiding and covert communication

The one path leads to endless war, global climate and environmental catastrophe and upheaval; the other a world of peace, abundance and a sustainable interstellar civilization for thousands of years yet to come. Would you like to support our work? Please consider donation. Steven Greer presents brand new, top-secret evidence supporting Extraterrestrial contact including witness testimony, classified documents and UFO footage while also exploring the consequences of ruthlessly enforcing such secrecy.

This book contains expanded testimony from witnesses from the film and many more witnesses and documents whose testimony could not fit in one documentary.

Read for yourself the details from these courageous whistleblowers. Enter your email below to get the latest information on upcoming Expeditions and Workshops. Please use the button below to donate as much as you would like donations non tax deductible.

Sirius reached number 1 on Netflix for documentaries and was acclaimed throughout the world. Watch on Vimeo. The Choice is ours to make. Buy on Shopify.

information hiding and covert communication

The Biggest Lies in history are about to be shattered.The first recorded use of the term was in by Johannes Trithemius in his Steganographiaa treatise on cryptography and steganography, disguised as a book on magic. Generally, the hidden messages appear to be or to be part of something else: images, articles, shopping lists, or some other cover text. For example, the hidden message may be in invisible ink between the visible lines of a private letter.

Some implementations of steganography that lack a shared secret are forms of security through obscurityand key-dependent steganographic schemes adhere to Kerckhoffs's principle.

The advantage of steganography over cryptography alone is that the intended secret message does not attract attention to itself as an object of scrutiny. Plainly visible encrypted messages, no matter how unbreakable they are, arouse interest and may in themselves be incriminating in countries in which encryption is illegal.

Whereas cryptography is the practice of protecting the contents of a message alone, steganography is concerned both with concealing the fact that a secret message is being sent and its contents. Steganography includes the concealment of information within computer files. In digital steganography, electronic communications may include steganographic coding inside of a transport layer, such as a document file, image file, program or protocol. Media files are ideal for steganographic transmission because of their large size.

For example, a sender might start with an innocuous image file and adjust the color of every hundredth pixel to correspond to a letter in the alphabet. The change is so subtle that someone who is not specifically looking for it is unlikely to notice the change. The first recorded uses of steganography can be traced back to BC in Greecewhen Herodotus mentions two examples in his Histories.

Wax tablets were in common use then as reusable writing surfaces, sometimes used for shorthand. Steganography has been widely used for centuries. Here are some examples: [6]. Modern steganography entered the world in with the advent of personal computers being applied to classical steganography problems.

An image or a text can be converted into a soundfile, which is then analysed with a spectrogram to reveal the image. Various artists have used this method to conceal hidden pictures in their songs, such as Aphex Twin in " Windowlicker " or Nine Inch Nails in their album Year Zero. In communities with social or government taboos or censorship, people use cultural steganography—hiding messages in idiom, pop culture references, and other messages they share publicly and assume are monitored.

This relies on social context to make the underlying messages visible only to certain readers. Since the era of evolving network applications, steganography research has shifted from image steganography to steganography in streaming media such as Voice Over Internet Protocol VoIP.

InGiannoula et al. InDittmann et al. InYongfeng Huang and Shanyu Tang presented a novel approach to information hiding in low bit-rate VoIP speech stream, and theirs published work on steganography in [24] is the first ever effort to improve the codebook partition by using Graph theory along with Quantization Index Modulation in low bit-rate streaming media. In andYongfeng Huang and Shanyu Tang devised new steganographic algorithms that use codec parameters as cover object to realise real-time covert VoIP steganography.

However, specific techniques hide data in CPS components. Digital steganography output may be in the form of printed documents. A message, the plaintextmay be first encrypted by traditional means, producing a ciphertext.

Then, an innocuous covertext is modified in some way so as to contain the ciphertext, resulting in the stegotext. For example, the letter size, spacing, typefaceor other characteristics of a covertext can be manipulated to carry the hidden message.The Bay of Pigs, Cuba.

Fifty-five years ago, more than a thousand Cuban exiles stormed the beaches at the Bay of PigsCubaintending to ignite an uprising that would overthrow the government of Fidel Castro. This week, we look back at the events that unfolded and at the key players whose covert performances played out for all the world to see. In the s, a young, charismatic Cuban nationalist named Fidel Castro led a guerrilla army against the forces of General Fulgencio Batista from a base camp deep within the Sierra Maestra Mountains, the largest mountain range in Cuba.

After three years of guerrilla warfare, Castro and his ragtag army descended from the mountains and entered Havana on January 1,forcing Batista to flee the country.

Many wealthy Americans lived in Cuba and had established thriving businesses there. In FebruaryCuba signed an agreement to buy oil from the Soviet Union. When the US-owned refineries in the country refused to process the oil, Castro seized the firms, and the US broke off diplomatic relations with the Cuban regime. To the chagrin of the Eisenhower administration, Castro established increasingly close ties with the Soviet Union while delivering fiery condemnations of the US.

Castro and Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev signed a series of pacts that resulted in large deliveries of economic and military aid in Within a year, Castro proclaimed himself a communist, formally allied his country with the Soviet Union, and seized remaining American and foreign-owned assets.

The establishment of a Communist state 90 miles off the coast of Florida raised obvious security concerns in Washington and did not sit well with President Eisenhower. Eisenhower authorized the CIA to conduct a covert operation to rid the island of its self-appointed leader. It would train and equip the exiles to infiltrate Cuba and start a revolution to ignite an uprising across the island and overthrow Castro. Top US Government officials watched as their decisions led to an entirely different outcome: one that would leave a covert operation exposed, embarrass the new Kennedy administration, end the career of the longest serving Director of Central Intelligence Allen Dulles, and, ultimately, leave Fidel Castro in power for decades to come.

Network Information Hiding, Chapter 2 (Introduction to Local Covert Channels)

Once there, they received training in weapons, infantry tactics, land navigation, amphibious assault tactics, team guerrilla operations, and paratrooping. The pilots were trained at an air training base in Guatemala.

Unbeknownst to the trainers, although likely suspected, sprinkled amongst the recruits were double-agents, working in tandem for Castro, sharing the intelligence that they collected on the upcoming invasion. The cover story for these bombings was simple. Allegedly, they would become disgruntled, take their aircrafts, shoot up their own air force bases, and then fly to the US to defect.

This first airstrike was supposed to take place two days prior to the invasion phase three. Phase Three : The invasion. The Brigade would invade Cuba by sea and air. Some members would invade Cuba on the beaches of Trinidad; others would parachute in farther inland. The Brigade pilots would fly air cover missions over the beach. The old colonial city of Trinidad was chosen as the invasion site because it offered many significant features.

It was an anti-Castro town with existing counter-revolutionary groups. It had good port facilities. The beachhead was easily defensible and, should the Brigade need to execute their escape plan, the Escambray Mountains were there to offer solitude. He was adamant the hand of the US Government remain hidden at all costs. Kennedy thought changing the invasion site from Trinidad would make future deniability of US involvement more plausible, so he gave the CIA four days to come up with a new one.

And so, a month before the operation was set to get underway, the landing location changed from Trinidad to the Bay of Pigs. He knew the land like the back of his hand. He vacationed there frequently and invested in the Cuban peasants surrounding the bay, garnering their loyalty and admiration.

Additionally, the Escambray Mountains, the designated escape site, was 50 miles away through hostile territory. The bay was also far from large groups of civilians, a necessary commodity for instigating an uprising, which may be a moot point, as the bay was surrounded by the largest swamp in Cuba, making it physically impossible for any Cubans wanting to join the revolt to actually do so.

information hiding and covert communication

Phase One, April Early on the morning of April 15, phase one was deployed. Six Cuban-piloted B bombers struck two airfields, three military bases, and Antonio Maceo Airport in an attempt to destroy the Cuban air force.It was a fantastic experience that I will never forget. Needless to say, I am slightly biased when it comes to reviewing this book.

I typically take something from all books, but this book obviously delivered more than I expected (A JOB. Here is my best objective summary of the book. The greatest strength of this book is the development of the many characters in the book. I say the word "character" because these are definitly not your average Joe.

My personal favorite is Alan Boston. Alan is a lovable curmudgeon that means well, but often shoots himself in the foot. I pleasantly laughed out loud at some of the remarks he made while watching games (primarily because I have made the same comments myself). If I would change the book in any way, I would strike the section on legislation and legalization of sports wagering. Although it is relevant to the story, I felt like it dragged on at times, and took away from the excitement of the "action.

The writing is strong, and not without moments of "tongue-in-cheek" humor. Chad is an interesting guy himself, who I have corresponding with since reading the book. He is a very friendly person who cares deeply about his audience. Buy this book, and if you dont enjoy it, find a degenerate gambler to give it to.

He or she will be sure to find a special place in their heart for it. It takes the reader on the roller coaster ride of betting on college basketball in Las Vegas. Although there were far too many typographical and grammatical problems, the story is engaging. If you ever wondered how the sports books set the lines or what the lifestyle of the full-time "professional" sports bettor is, this book is illuminating. Interestingly, Millman predicts the imminent demise of the Vegas sports book 14 years ago, but today the business seems to be as strong as ever.

As a fan of Chad Millman's podcast, I enjoyed reading the book that had such a significant impact on his future. Also, this introduced me to some of his guests on the podcast and provided background information on them.

It also provides some interesting tales of the transition of sports betting from its early days to the more corporate set up today and discusses the impact of the internet on sports betting. I thoroughly enjoyed it and would love to read a sequel that updated where some of the people are today and the changes in the more than a decade since the book was written.

Yes NoSee all 76 reviewsWrite a customer review Most recent customer reviews4. During Super Bowl stopped by and had. Published 1 year ago3. Published 1 year ago5. Published on October 3, 2015Search customer reviews.


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